## Mathematics and Cartography

** I have found an interesting part about the history of mathematics associated with cartography, which is not usually very important **

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Cartography can be considered a mathematical discipline since ancient times. In this first section we trace a historical development of cartography starting from the oldest maps of more or less vast parts of the earth's surface.

Over time, local maps were flanked by larger scale maps to depict the entire land surface known at the time. An important role is reserved for Greek cartography. The most important exponent of this period was certainly Ptolemy. Further advances in the cartographic field occurred much later, around the century. IX d.C. and for appreciable results we must move to the East. Among the various scholars of the Arab-Persian-Muslim world we mention Al-Khwarizmi and Al-Bīrūnī whose merits have been recognized only in recent times. In Europe new maps appeared only from the 13th century, in fact the mathematical aspect of cartography was very underrated and the maps were instead conceived essentially for practical uses, in particular for nautical use (Catalan and Italian portolans).

A real revolution occurred in the Renaissance and is in the sec. XVI that we see the first substantial improvements of the mathematical cartography, pushed by the discovery of new lands (Regiomontanus, Apiano, Werner, Gemma Frisius). An important stage was marked by the cylindrical projection of Mercatore, used in 1569 for the realization of an atlas in 18 sheets, in which meridians and parallels are represented by perpendicular lines and the rhumb lines appear as straight lines on the map. In the following centuries, thanks to the scientific advances that led to the use of new methods and tools, the cartography took on an increasingly important role both in the military and in the civil field.

** It is really true that mathematics has to do with everything !! **